E q u i t y    I s s u e s
i n    t h e    A c h i e v e m e n t    o f    M D G s


The achievement of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) is measured as a national average. Health and ill-health are often concentrated in certain groups of people. The EPI-4 (Evidence for Policy and Implementation in 4 countries) is a networked effort to improve the design and implementation of policies and programs for achieving MDG 4, 5 and 6 in China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. The network focuses on how disadvantaged groups in the population will not lag behind other groups. Inequalities or disparities in health risks, access to health care and health outcomes are common among different populations. These disparities become unacceptable when they are due to “irrelevant” characteristics, such as ethnicity, gender and social class. Health disparities which are “avoidable, unfair and unjust” were called health inequity (Whitehead, 1992; Braveman, 2006). WHO Initiative on Health and Health Care (1995-1998) was established to minimize “avoidable disparities in health and its determinants–including but not limited to health care–between groups of people who have different levels of underlying social advantage or privilege, i.e., different levels of power, wealth, or prestige due to their positions in society relative to other groups”. Health inequity adversely affects “disadvantaged nations and groups within nations”.


Conceptual framework for research and intervention to mitigate the impact of social determinants on health and well-being (Solar and Irwin, 2010)

Conceptual framework for research and intervention to mitigate the impact of social determinants on health and well-being (Solar and Irwin, 2010)




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